Homeostasis excerpt, rearrangement

Biology 42 – Human Biology (Spring 2007)

Homeostasis excerpt, rearrangement.

[ Students and professors, please read. ]

list of the hormones involved in calcium cicle

list of the hormones involved in calcium cicle (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Cardiovascular

The heart pumps blood, which clots to prevent blood loss and which carries oxygen and nutrients to cells of all the organs and carries wastes away from them through blood vessels.

The urinary system helps and depends on the cardiovascular system because “production of renin by the kidneys helps maintain blood pressure.  Blood vessels transport nitrogenous wastes to the kidneys and carbon dioxide to the lungs.  The buffering system of the blood helps the kidneys maintain the acid-base balance,” (p. 173).

The muscular and skeletal systems help and depend on the cardiovascular system because “red bone marrow produces the blood cells.  The rib cage protects the heart; red bone marrow stores calcium for blood clotting.  Muscle contraction keeps blood moving in the heart and blood vessels, particularly the veins,” (p. 213).

The nervous and endocrine systems help and depend on the cardiovascular system because “nerves and epinephrine regulate contractions of the heart and constriction/dilation of blood vessels.  Hormones regulate blood glucose and ion levels.  Growth factors promote blood cell formation.  Blood vessels transport hormones to target cells,” (p. 285).

Digestive

The cardiovascular system helps and depends on the digestive system by delivering “nutrients from the digestive tract to the cells.  The digestive tract provides the molecules needed for plasma protein formation and blood cell formation.  The digestive system absorbs the water needed to maintain blood pressure and the calcium needed for blood clotting,” (p. 111).

The urinary system helps and depends on the digestive system because “the liver produces urea excreted by the kidneys.  The yellow pigment found in urine, called urochrome (breakdown product of hemoglobin), is produced by the liver. The digestive system absorbs nutrients, ions, and water.  These help the kidneys maintain the proper level of ions and water in the blood,” (p. 173).

The muscular and skeletal systems help and depend on the digestive system because “jaws contain teeth that chew food; the hyoid bone assists swallowing.  Muscle contraction accounts for chewing of food and peristalsis to move food along digestive tract.  The digestive tract absorbs ions needed for strong bones and muscle contraction,” (p. 213).

The nervous and endocrine systems help and depend on the digestive system because “nerves stimulate smooth muscle and permit digestive tract movements.  Hormones help regulate digestive juices that break down food to nutrients for neurons and glands,” (p. 285).

Endocrine

Together with the nervous system, this system “coordinate[s] the activities of the other systems.  …The endocrine system secretes hormones that influence the metabolism of cells, the growth and development of body parts, and homeostasis,” (p. 285).

The cardiovascular system helps and depends on the endocrine system because “blood vessels transport hormones from glands to their target organs.  The hormone epinephrine increases blood pressure; other hormones help regulate blood volume and blood cell formation,” (p. 111).

The urinary system helps and depends on the endocrine system because “the kidneys produce renin, leading to the production of aldosterone, a hormone that helps kidneys maintain the water-salt balance.  The kidneys produce the hormone erythropoietin, and they change vitamin D to a hormone.  The posterior pituitary produces ADH, which regulates water retention by the kidneys,” (p. 173).

The muscular and skeletal systems help and depend on the endocrine system because “growth hormone and sex hormones regulate bone and muscle development; parathyroid hormone and calcitonin regulate calcium content of bones,” (p. 213).

Lymphatic

The cardiovascular system helps and depends on the lymphatic system because “capillaries are the source of tissue fluid, which becomes lymph.  The lymphatic system helps maintain blood volume by collecting excess tissue fluid (i.e., lymph), and returning it via lymphatic vessels to the cardiovascular veins,” (p. 111).

Integumentary

The urinary system helps and depends on the integumentary system because “sweat glands excrete perspiration, which is a solution of water, salt and some urea,” (p. 173).

The nervous and endocrine systems help and depend on the integumentary system because “nerves activate sweat glands and arrector pili muscles.  Sensory receptors in skin send information to the brain about the external environment.  Skin protects neurons and glands,” (p. 285).

Muscular

Together with the skeletal system, this system “allow[s] the body to move, and … provide[s] support and protection for internal organs.  Muscle contraction provides heat to warm the body,” (p. 213).

The cardiovascular system helps and depends on the muscular system because “muscle contraction keeps blood moving through the heart and in the blood vessels, particularly the veins,” (p. 111).

The urinary system helps and depends on the muscular system because “the kidneys regulate the amount of ions in the blood.  These ions are necessary to the contraction of muscles, including those that propel fluids in the ureters and urethra,” (p. 173).

The nervous and endocrine systems help and depend on the muscular system because “nerves stimulate muscles, whose contractions allow us to move out of danger.  Androgens promote growth of skeletal muscles.  Sensory receptors in muscles and joints send information to the brain.  Muscles protect neurons and glands,” (p. 285).

Nervous

Together with the endocrine system, this system “coordinate[s] the activities of the other systems.  The brain receives sensory input and controls the activity of muscles and various glands,” (p. 285).

The cardiovascular system helps and depends on the nervous system because “nerves help regulate the contraction of the heart and the constriction/dilation of blood vessels,” (p. 111).

The urinary system helps and depends on the nervous system because “the kidneys regulate the amount of ions (like potassium, sodium, and calcium) in the blood.  These ions are necessary for nerve impulse conduction.  The nervous system controls urination,” (p. 173).

The muscular and skeletal systems help and depend on the nervous system because “bones store calcium needed for muscle contraction and nerve impulse conduction. The nervous system stimulates muscles and sends sensory input from joints to the brain.  Muscle contraction moves eyes, permits speech, and creates facial expressions,” (p. 213).

Reproductive

The muscular and skeletal systems help and depend on the reproductive system because “muscle contraction moves gametes in oviducts, and uterine contraction occurs during childbirth.  Sex hormones influence bone growth and density; androgens promote muscle growth,” (p. 213).

The nervous and endocrine systems help and depend on the reproductive system because “nerves stimulate contractions that move gametes in ducts, and uterine contraction that occurs during childbirth.  Sex hormones influence the development of the secondary sex characteristics,” (p. 285).

Respiratory

The cardiovascular system helps and depends on the respiratory system because “blood vessels transport gases to and from lungs.  Gas exchange in the lungs supplies oxygen and rids the body of carbon dioxide, helping to regulate the acid-base balance of blood.  Breathing aids venous return,” (p. 111).

The urinary system helps and depends on the respiratory system “by excreting carbon dioxide as bicarbonate ions, while the lungs help the kidneys maintain the acid-base balance of the blood by excreting carbon dioxide,” (p. 173).

The muscular and skeletal systems help and depend on the respiratory system because “the rib cage protects the lungs, and rib cage movement assists breathing, as does muscle contraction.  Breathing provides the oxygen needed for ATP production so muscles can move,” (p. 213).

The nervous and endocrine systems help and depend on the respiratory system because “the respiratory center in the brain regulates the breathing rate.  The lungs carry on gas exchange for the benefit of all systems, including the nervous and endocrine systems,” (p. 285).

Skeletal

Together with the muscular system, this system “allow[s] the body to move, and … provide[s] support and protection for internal organs.  …bones play a role in calcium balance,” (p. 213).

The cardiovascular system helps and depends on the skeletal system because “the rib cage protects the heart, red bone marrow produces blood cells, and bones store calcium for blood clotting,” (p. 111).

The nervous and endocrine systems help and depend on the skeletal system because “growth hormone and sex hormones regulate the size of the bones; parathyroid hormone and calcitonin regulate their calcium content and therefore bone strength.  Bones protect nerves and glands,” (p. 285).

Urinary

“As an aid to all the systems, the kidneys excrete nitrogenous wastes, maintain the water-salt balance and the acid-base balance of the blood,” (p. 173).

The cardiovascular system helps and depends on the urinary system because “blood vessels transport wastes to be excreted.  Kidneys excrete wastes and help regulate the water-salt balance necessary to maintain blood volume and pressure and help regulate the acid-base balance of the blood,” (p. 111).

The muscular and skeletal systems help and depend on the urinary system because “muscle contraction moves the fluid within ureters, bladder, and urethra.  Kidneys activate vitamin D needed for calcium absorption and help maintain the blood level of calcium for bone growth and repair, and for muscle contraction,” (p. 213).

The nervous and endocrine systems help and depend on the urinary system because “nerves stimulate muscles that permit urination.  Hormones (ADH and aldosterone) help kidneys regulate the water-salt balance and the acid-base balance of the blood,” (p. 285).

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